Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 _________________________________________________________________
Tcl_OpenFileChannel, Tcl_OpenCommandChannel, Tcl_MakeFileChannel, Tcl_GetChannel, Tcl_RegisterChannel, Tcl_UnregisterChannel, Tcl_Close, Tcl_Read, Tcl_Gets, Tcl_Write, Tcl_Flush, Tcl_Seek, Tcl_Tell, Tcl_Eof, Tcl_InputBlocked, Tcl_InputBuffered, Tcl_GetChannelOption, Tcl_SetChannelOption - buffered I/O facilities using chan- nels
#include <tcl.h> typedef ... Tcl_Channel; Tcl_Channel Tcl_OpenFileChannel(interp, fileName, mode, permissions) Tcl_Channel Tcl_OpenCommandChannel(interp, argc, argv, flags) Tcl_Channel | Tcl_MakeFileChannel(handle, readOrWrite) | Tcl_Channel Tcl_GetChannel(interp, channelName, modePtr) void Tcl_RegisterChannel(interp, channel) int Tcl_UnregisterChannel(interp, channel) int Tcl_Close(interp, channel) int Tcl_Read(channel, buf, toRead) int Tcl_Gets(channel, lineRead) int Tcl_GetsObj(channel, lineObjPtr) int Tcl_Write(channel, buf, toWrite) int Tcl_Flush(channel) Tcl 1 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 int Tcl_Seek(channel, offset, seekMode) int Tcl_Tell(channel) int Tcl_GetChannelOption(interp, channel, optionName, optionValue) int Tcl_SetChannelOption(interp, channel, optionName, newValue) int Tcl_Eof(channel) int Tcl_InputBlocked(channel) int Tcl_InputBuffered(channel)
Tcl_Interp *interp (in) Used for error report- ing and to look up a channel registered in it. char *fileName (in) The name of a local or net- work file. char *mode (in) Specifies how the file is to be accessed. May have any of the values allowed for the mode argument to the Tcl open command. For Tcl_OpenCommandChannel, may be NULL. int permissions (in) POSIX-style permission flags such as Tcl 2 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 0644. If a new file is created, these permis- sions will be set on the created file. int argc (in) The number of elements in argv. char **argv (in) Arguments for constructing a command pipeline. These values have the same meaning as the non- switch argu- ments to the Tcl exec com- mand. int flags (in) Specifies the disposition of the stdio handles in pipeline: OR-ed combi- nation of TCL_STDIN, TCL_STDOUT, TCL_STDERR, and TCL_ENFORCE_MODE. If TCL_STDIN is set, stdin for the first child in the pipe is the pipe channel, otherwise it is the same as the stan- dard input of the invoking process; likewise for TCL_STDOUT and Tcl 3 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 TCL_STDERR. If TCL_ENFORCE_MODE is not set, then the pipe can redirect stdio handles to override the stdio handles for which TCL_STDIN, TCL_STDOUT and TCL_STDERR have been set. If it is set, then such redirec- tions cause an error. | ClientData handle (in) || Operating | system | specific han- | dle for I/O | to a file. | For Unix this | is a file | descriptor, | for Windows | it is a HAN- | DLE. | int readOrWrite (in) || OR-ed combi- | nation of | TCL_READABLE | and | TCL_WRITABLE | to indicate | what opera- | tions are | valid on han- | dle. int *modePtr (out) Points at an integer vari- able that will receive an OR-ed Tcl 4 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 combination of TCL_READABLE and TCL_WRITABLE denoting whether the channel is open for reading and writing. Tcl_Channel channel (in) A Tcl channel for input or output. Must have been the return value from a pro- cedure such as Tcl_OpenFileChannel. char *buf (in) An array of bytes in which to store channel input, or from which to read channel output. int len (in) The length of the input or output. int atEnd (in) If nonzero, store the input at the end of the input queue, otherwise store it at the head of the input queue. int toRead (in) The number of bytes to read from the channel. Tcl_DString *lineRead (in) A pointer to Tcl 5 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 a Tcl dynamic string in which to store the line read from the channel. Must have been initial- ized by the caller. The line read will be appended to any data already in the dynamic string. Tcl_Obj *linePtrObj (in) A pointer to a Tcl object in which to store the line read from the channel. The line read will be appended to the current value of the object. int toWrite (in) The number of bytes to read from buf and output to the channel. int offset (in) How far to move the access point in the chan- nel at which the next input or out- put operation will be applied, measured in bytes from the position Tcl 6 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 given by seekMode. May be either positive or negative. int seekMode (in) Relative to which point to seek; used with offset to calculate the new access point for the chan- nel. Legal values are SEEK_SET, SEEK_CUR, and SEEK_END. char *optionName (in) The name of an option applicable to this channel, such as -blocking. May have any of the values accepted by the fconfig- ure command. Tcl_DString *optionValue (in) Where to store the value of an option or a list of all options and their values. Must have been initial- ized by the caller. char *newValue (in) New value for the option given by optionName. _________________________________________________________________ Tcl 7 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0
The Tcl channel mechanism provides a device-independent and platform-independent mechanism for performing buffered input and output operations on a variety of file, socket, and dev- ice types. The channel mechanism is extensible to new chan- nel types, by providing a low level channel driver for the new type; the channel driver interface is described in the manual entry for Tcl_CreateChannel. The channel mechanism provides a buffering scheme modelled after Unix's standard I/O, and it also allows for nonblocking I/O on channels. The procedures described in this manual entry comprise the C APIs of the generic layer of the channel architecture. For a description of the channel driver architecture and how to implement channel drivers for new types of channels, see the manual entry for Tcl_CreateChannel. TCL_OPENFILECHANNEL Tcl_OpenFileChannel opens a file specified by fileName and returns a channel handle that can be used to perform input and output on the file. This API is modelled after the fopen procedure of the Unix standard I/O library. The syntax and meaning of all arguments is similar to those given in the Tcl open command when opening a file. If an error occurs while opening the channel, Tcl_OpenFileChannel returns NULL and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. In addition, if interp is non-NULL, Tcl_OpenFileChannel leaves an error message in interp- >result after any error. The newly created channel is not registered in the supplied interpreter; to register it, use Tcl_RegisterChannel, described below. If one of the standard channels, stdin, stdout or stderr was previously closed, the act of creating the new channel also assigns it as a replacement for the standard channel. TCL_OPENCOMMANDCHANNEL Tcl_OpenCommandChannel provides a C-level interface to the functions of the exec and open commands. It creates a sequence of subprocesses specified by the argv and argc arguments and returns a channel that can be used to communi- cate with these subprocesses. The flags argument indicates what sort of communication will exist with the command pipe- line. If the TCL_STDIN flag is set then the standard input for the first subprocess will be tied to the channel: writing to the channel will provide input to the subprocess. If TCL_STDIN is not set, then standard input for the first subprocess Tcl 8 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 will be the same as this application's standard input. If TCL_STDOUT is set then standard output from the last subpro- cess can be read from the channel; otherwise it goes to this application's standard output. If TCL_STDERR is set, stan- dard error output for all subprocesses is returned to the channel and results in an error when the channel is closed; otherwise it goes to this application's standard error. If TCL_ENFORCE_MODE is not set, then argc and argv can redirect the stdio handles to override TCL_STDIN, TCL_STDOUT, and TCL_STDERR; if it is set, then it is an error for argc and argv to override stdio channels for which TCL_STDIN, TCL_STDOUT, and TCL_STDERR have been set. If an error occurs while opening the channel, Tcl_OpenCommandChannel returns NULL and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. In addition, Tcl_OpenCommandChannel leaves an error message in interp->result if interp is not NULL. The newly created channel is not registered in the supplied interpreter; to register it, use Tcl_RegisterChannel, described below. If one of the standard channels, stdin, stdout or stderr was previously closed, the act of creating the new channel also assigns it as a replacement for the standard channel. TCL_MAKEFILECHANNEL Tcl_MakeFileChannel makes a Tcl_Channel from an existing, platform-specific, file handle. The newly created channel is not registered in the supplied interpreter; to register it, use Tcl_RegisterChannel, described below. If one of the standard channels, stdin, stdout or stderr was previously closed, the act of creating the new channel also assigns it as a replacement for the standard channel. TCL_GETCHANNEL Tcl_GetChannel returns a channel given the channelName used to create it with Tcl_CreateChannel and a pointer to a Tcl interpreter in interp. If a channel by that name is not registered in that interpreter, the procedure returns NULL. If the mode argument is not NULL, it points at an integer variable that will receive an OR-ed combination of TCL_READABLE and TCL_WRITABLE describing whether the channel is open for reading and writing. TCL_REGISTERCHANNEL Tcl_RegisterChannel adds a channel to the set of channels accessible in interp. After this call, Tcl programs execut- ing in that interpreter can refer to the channel in input or Tcl 9 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 output operations using the name given in the call to Tcl_CreateChannel. After this call, the channel becomes the property of the interpreter, and the caller should not call Tcl_Close for the channel; the channel will be closed automatically when it is unregistered from the interpreter. Code executing outside of any Tcl interpreter can call Tcl_RegisterChannel with interp as NULL, to indicate that it wishes to hold a reference to this channel. Subsequently, the channel can be registered in a Tcl interpreter and it will only be closed when the matching number of calls to Tcl_UnregisterChannel have been made. This allows code exe- cuting outside of any interpreter to safely hold a reference to a channel that is also registered in a Tcl interpreter. TCL_UNREGISTERCHANNEL Tcl_UnregisterChannel removes a channel from the set of channels accessible in interp. After this call, Tcl programs will no longer be able to use the channel's name to refer to the channel in that interpreter. If this operation removed the last registration of the channel in any interpreter, the channel is also closed and destroyed. Code not associated with a Tcl interpreter can call Tcl_UnregisterChannel with interp as NULL, to indicate to Tcl that it no longer holds a reference to that channel. If this is the last reference to the channel, it will now be closed. TCL_CLOSE Tcl_Close destroys the channel channel, which must denote a currently open channel. The channel should not be registered in any interpreter when Tcl_Close is called. Buffered output is flushed to the channel's output device prior to destroy- ing the channel, and any buffered input is discarded. If this is a blocking channel, the call does not return until all buffered data is successfully sent to the channel's out- put device. If this is a nonblocking channel and there is buffered output that cannot be written without blocking, the call returns immediately; output is flushed in the back- ground and the channel will be closed once all of the buf- fered data has been output. In this case errors during flushing are not reported. If the channel was closed successfully, Tcl_Close returns TCL_OK. If an error occurs, Tcl_Close returns TCL_ERROR and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. If the channel is being closed synchronously and an error occurs during closing of the channel and interp is not NULL, an error message is left in interp->result. Tcl 10 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 Note: it is not safe to call Tcl_Close on a channel that has been registered using Tcl_RegisterChannel; see the documen- tation for Tcl_RegisterChannel, above, for details. If the channel has ever been given as the chan argument in a call to Tcl_RegisterChannel, you should instead use Tcl_UnregisterChannel, which will internally call Tcl_Close when all calls to Tcl_RegisterChannel have been matched by corresponding calls to Tcl_UnregisterChannel. TCL_READ Tcl_Read consumes up to toRead bytes of data from channel and stores it at buf. The return value of Tcl_Read is the number of characters written at buf. The buffer produced by Tcl_Read is not NULL terminated. Its contents are valid from the zeroth position up to and excluding the position indi- cated by the return value. If an error occurs, the return value is -1 and Tcl_Read records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. The return value may be smaller than the value of toRead, indicating that less data than requested was available, also called a short read. In blocking mode, this can only happen on an end-of-file. In nonblocking mode, a short read can also occur if there is not enough input currently available: Tcl_Read returns a short count rather than waiting for more data. If the channel is in blocking mode, a return value of zero indicates an end of file condition. If the channel is in nonblocking mode, a return value of zero indicates either that no input is currently available or an end of file con- dition. Use Tcl_Eof and Tcl_InputBlocked to tell which of these conditions actually occurred. Tcl_Read translates platform-specific end-of-line represen- tations into the canonical \n internal representation according to the current end-of-line recognition mode. End- of-line recognition and the various platform-specific modes are described in the manual entry for the Tcl fconfigure command. TCL_GETS AND TCL_GETSOBJ Tcl_Gets reads a line of input from a channel and appends all of the characters of the line except for the terminating end-of-line character(s) to the dynamic string given by dsPtr. The end-of-line character(s) are read and discarded. If a line was successfully read, the return value is greater than or equal to zero, and it indicates the number of char- acters stored in the dynamic string. If an error occurs, Tcl 11 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 Tcl_Gets returns -1 and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. Tcl_Gets also returns -1 if the end of the file is reached; the Tcl_Eof procedure can be used to distinguish an error from an end-of-file condition. If the channel is in nonblocking mode, the return value can also be -1 if no data was available or the data that was available did not contain an end-of-line character. When -1 is returned, the Tcl_InputBlocked procedure may be invoked to determine if the channel is blocked because of input una- vailability. Tcl_GetsObj is the same as Tcl_Gets except the resulting characters are appended to a Tcl object lineObjPtr rather than a dynamic string. TCL_WRITE Tcl_Write accepts toWrite bytes of data at buf for output on channel. This data may not appear on the output device immediately. If the data should appear immediately, call Tcl_Flush after the call to Tcl_Write, or set the -buffering option on the channel to none. If you wish the data to appear as soon as an end of line is accepted for output, set the -buffering option on the channel to line mode. The toWrite argument specifies how many bytes of data are provided in the buf argument. If it is negative, Tcl_Write expects the data to be NULL terminated and it outputs every- thing up to the NULL. The return value of Tcl_Write is a count of how many charac- ters were accepted for output to the channel. This is either equal to toWrite or -1 to indicate that an error occurred. If an error occurs, Tcl_Write also records a POSIX error code that may be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. Newline characters in the output data are translated to platform-specific end-of-line sequences according to the -translation option for the channel. TCL_FLUSH Tcl_Flush causes all of the buffered output data for channel to be written to its underlying file or device as soon as possible. If the channel is in blocking mode, the call does not return until all the buffered data has been sent to the channel or some error occurred. The call returns immedi- ately if the channel is nonblocking; it starts a background flush that will write the buffered data to the channel even- tually, as fast as the channel is able to absorb it. Tcl 12 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 The return value is normally TCL_OK. If an error occurs, Tcl_Flush returns TCL_ERROR and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. TCL_SEEK Tcl_Seek moves the access point in channel where subsequent data will be read or written. Buffered output is flushed to the channel and buffered input is discarded, prior to the seek operation. Tcl_Seek normally returns the new access point. If an error occurs, Tcl_Seek returns -1 and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with Tcl_GetErrno. After an error, the access point may or may not have been moved. TCL_TELL Tcl_Tell returns the current access point for a channel. The returned value is -1 if the channel does not support seek- ing. TCL_GETCHANNELOPTION Tcl_GetChannelOption retrieves, in dsPtr, the value of one of the options currently in effect for a channel, or a list of all options and their values. The channel argument iden- tifies the channel for which to query an option or retrieve all options and their values. If optionName is not NULL, it is the name of the option to query; the option's value is copied to the Tcl dynamic string denoted by optionValue. If optionName is NULL, the function stores an alternating list of option names and their values in optionValue, using a series of calls to Tcl_DStringAppendElement. The various preexisting options and their possible values are described in the manual entry for the Tcl fconfigure command. Other options can be added by each channel type. These channel type specific options are described in the manual entry for the Tcl command that creates a channel of that type; for example, the additional options for TCP based channels are described in the manual entry for the Tcl socket command. The procedure normally returns TCL_OK. If an error occurs, it returns TCL_ERROR and calls Tcl_SetErrno to store an appropriate POSIX error code. TCL_SETCHANNELOPTION Tcl_SetChannelOption sets a new value for an option on chan- nel. OptionName is the option to set and newValue is the value to set. The procedure normally returns TCL_OK. If an error occurs, it returns TCL_ERROR; in addition, if interp is non-NULL, Tcl_SetChannelOption leaves an error message in Tcl 13 Tcl_OpenFileChannel(3)Tcl Library Procedures 8.0 interp->result. TCL_EOF Tcl_Eof returns a nonzero value if channel encountered an end of file during the last input operation. TCL_INPUTBLOCKED Tcl_InputBlocked returns a nonzero value if channel is in nonblocking mode and the last input operation returned less data than requested because there was insufficient data available. The call always returns zero if the channel is in blocking mode. TCL_INPUTBUFFERED Tcl_InputBuffered returns the number of bytes of input currently buffered in the internal buffers for a channel. If the channel is not open for reading, this function always returns zero. PLATFORM ISSUES | The handles returned from Tcl_GetChannelHandle depend on the | platform and the channel type. On Unix platforms, the han- | dle is always a Unix file descriptor as returned from the | open system call. On Windows platforms, the handle is a | file HANDLE when the channel was created with | Tcl_OpenFileChannel, Tcl_OpenCommandChannel, or | Tcl_MakeFileChannel. Other channel types may return a dif- | ferent type of handle on Windows platforms. On the Macin- | tosh platform, the handle is a file reference number as | returned from HOpenDF.
DString(3), fconfigure(n), filename(n), fopen(2), Tcl_CreateChannel(3)
access point, blocking, buffered I/O, channel, channel driver, end of file, flush, input, nonblocking, output, read, seek, write Tcl 14 Prepared by Ready-to-Run Software, Inc.
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