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Ghostscript
   Copyright (C) 1993, 1994 Aladdin Enterprises.  All rights reserved.
 
Permission to copy and distribute this document unmodified for any
purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided that the above
copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
This file, commprod.doc, sets forth the conditions under which Ghostscript
may be distributed in a commercial context: under a written license from
Artifex Software Inc., Aladdin Enterprises' exclusive commercial licensing
partner, or under certain other very limited conditions.
 
For an overview of Ghostscript and a list of the documentation files, see
the README file in the Ghostscript fileset.
 
 
	The Use of the Public Access "Free" Version of Ghostscript
	----------------------------------------------------------
 
Ghostscript is a copyrighted work whose copyright is owned by Aladdin
Enterprises.  Some versions of Ghostscript are distributed freely under the
name Aladdin Ghostscript; these versions are always distributed with a
license, called the Aladdin Ghostscript Free Public License (also known as
the AGFPL), which permits Aladdin Ghostscript to be redistributed freely
under certain conditions.  These conditions will almost always be met
easily by individuals in their personal use of Aladdin Ghostscript.
Aladdin Ghostscript may be *used* freely, including by commercial entities
for evaluation or unsupported internal use.  However, *distribution* for
commercial purposes of Ghostscript, or anything containing or derived from
Ghostscript in whole or in part, requires a written commercial license from
Artifex Software Inc., the sole entity authorized by Aladdin Enterprises to
grant such licenses.  More specifically, the AGFPL states:

   Distribution of the Program or any work based on the Program by a
   commercial organization to any third party is prohibited if any payment is
   made in connection with such distribution, whether directly (as in payment
   for a copy of the Program) or indirectly (as in payment for some service
   related to the Program); provided, however, that the fact that the Program
   is posted on a public access information storage and retrieval service for
   which a fee is received (such as an on-line service) shall not in and of
   itself be a violation of this restriction.

The "in connection with" wording in the first clause prohibits including
Aladdin Ghostscript "free" in a package containing anything for which a
charge is being made.  The intent of the exception provided in the second
clause is to allow commercial organizations operating an FTP server or a
bulletin board to distribute Aladdin Ghostscript freely from it, provided
that:

	(1) the organization complies with the other provisions of the
AGFPL, which include among other things a requirement to distribute the
full source code of Aladdin Ghostscript and of any derived work, and to
distribute the AGFPL itself along with Aladdin Ghostscript;

	(2) the only charge for downloading Aladdin Ghostscript is a charge
based on the distribution service and not one based on the content of the
information being retrieved (i.e., the charge would be the same for
retrieving a random collection of bits of the same size);

	(3) the server or BBS is accessible to the general public, i.e.,
the phone number or IP address is not kept secret, and anyone may obtain
access to the information (possibly by paying a subscription or access fee
that is not dependent on or related to purchasing anything else).

If you want to distribute software in a commercial context that
incorporates Ghostscript and you do *not* want to meet these conditions,
you should contact Artifex Software to find out about commercial licensing.
Commercial licenses involve a (negotiated) payment, and include support and
other benefits.  These are the only ways you legally can distribute
Ghostscript or anything containing Ghostscript: either by distributing
Aladdin Ghostscript under the requirements of the AGFPL, or by getting a
commercial license from Artifex Software.

For commercial licensing, please contact:

	In the U.S. and all parts of the world except Europe:

		Miles Jones
		Director of Marketing
		Artifex Software Inc.
		454 Las Gallinas Ave., suite 108
		San Rafael, CA 94903  U.S.A.
		voice +1-415-492-9861
		fax +1-415-492-9862
		e-mail: dir.

	In Europe, as a representative of Artifex Software:

		quick System Service
		Christoph Strozyk
		Sprockhoeveler Str. 55
		58455 Witten
		Germany
		Tel. +49-2302-28133-0
		Fax. +49-2302-28133-6
		e-mail: 

	(quickSyS also provides commercial support for the free versions.)
 
If you have any questions about any of the information in this document,
please contact:
		Aladdin Enterprises
		P.O. box 60264
		Palo Alto, CA 94306
		U.S.A.
		voice phone +1-415-322-0103
		fax +1-415-322-1734
		

Appendix: The GNU General Public License
----------------------------------------

Older versions of Ghostscript (version 2.6.1 and previous) were distributed
with a license called the GNU General Public License (also known as the
"GNU License", the "GPL", or the "copyleft"), which allowed distribution
with commercial products under certain conditions.  Aladdin Enterprises may
choose to distribute other versions of Ghostscript with the GPL in the
future; however, these versions will be identified as "GNU Ghostscript."
The remainder of this Appendix applies only to versions identified
explicitly as GNU Ghostscript versions; the generic name Ghostscript, when
applied to versions above 2.6.1, refers to Aladdin Ghostscript, which is
governed by the Aladdin Ghostscript Free Public License, not the GPL.
 
For those unfamiliar with the GPL, we now summarize its provisions.  The
full GPL is included under the name COPYING in the fileset that comprises
GNU Ghostscript, and can also be obtained from the Free Software
Foundation (FSF), 675 Mass Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (U.S.A.).  In case of
doubt or conflict, the contents of the COPYING file or the document
obtained from the FSF, not this summary, are authoritative.
 
	1. Anyone may copy and distribute GNU Ghostscript (both source and
object code), but they must distribute the source code as well as the
object code (or, if they distribute only the object code, they must
include an offer in writing to provide the source code at no more than
reproduction cost), keep all copyright and other notices, and include the
GPL with the copies.  (Note that this allows anyone receiving such a copy
to distribute it freely as well.)
 
	2. Anyone may modify GNU Ghostscript, but the provisions of #1
apply to modified or derived works as well.
 
	3. GNU Ghostscript may be "aggregated" with another program; in
this case, #1 and #2 do not apply to the other program, but only to GNU
Ghostscript.
	                                   
Provision #1 makes it much harder to have a commercial business based only
on selling copies of GNU Ghostscript (as distributed with the GPL) or
products that contain GNU Ghostscript, since any customer is free to make
as many copies as they want for any purpose.  Provision #2 effectively
prevents the development of proprietary commercial products that
incorporate GNU Ghostscript without a commercial license as a part, since
these are "derived works" in the legal sense.
 
Questions have arisen at times in particular cases regarding provision #3
as to whether GNU Ghostscript is "aggregated" with other parts of a
commercial product, or whether the product has become a "derived work."
Normally, combining GNU Ghostscript with another piece of software creates
a "derived work"; we consider GNU Ghostscript to be "aggregated" with
another piece of software, which we will refer to as "the application",
only if all of the following conditions are met:
 
	- The code and documentation for GNU Ghostscript are physically
	separated from the code and documentation for the application.
	For electronic form, it is both necessary and sufficient to put
	the GNU Ghostscript code and documentation in their own directory
	tree(s).
 
	- GNU Ghostscript, as delivered with the application, is usable
	independently of the application.  More precisely, if a user
	deletes from the computer system all files delivered with the
	application except those in the GNU Ghostscript directories, the
	user will still be able to use GNU Ghostscript as described in
	GNU Ghostscript's documentation.  Among other things, this
	requires that GNU Ghostscript not call any routines in the
	application, and not require any data or other files supplied as
	part of the application.
	                                   
	- The application calls GNU Ghostscript in a way that allows an
	ordinary user to substitute another program for GNU Ghostscript.
	(Typically this requires use of a shell script or batch file, or a
	system call like `exec'.)  More precisely, if the user deletes
	from the computer system all the files in the GNU Ghostscript
	directories, and replaces the GNU Ghostscript executable with
	another program with the same name and conforming to the same
	documentation, the application will continue to work with it.  One
	implication of this is that the GNU Ghostscript documentation must
	specify all properties of GNU Ghostscript on which the application
	relies; for example, if GNU Ghostscript has been modified by the
	addition of command line switches or language elements such as new
	operators, the documentation must describe any such additions that
	the application uses.
 
	- The conditions of the GPL are met with respect to GNU
	Ghostscript, including the requirement for propagation of the GPL
	and the requirement for delivering (or an offer to deliver) source
	code.
 
Regarding this last point, the GPL clearly intends that if the distributor
only offers to provide the GNU Ghostscript source code (as opposed to
actually distributing the source code with every copy of the application),
then they must deliver the source code in a timely way to anyone
requesting it.
 
The GPL makes it clear that if someone receives GNU Ghostscript only in
its GPL-licensed form, they only have a right to distribute it if they
comply with the GPL.  Aladdin Enterprises, as the copyright holder, takes
this requirement very seriously, and will, if necessary, take legal action
to ensure that anyone distributing GNU Ghostscript with the GPL complies
with the conditions set forth above.

 

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