About Us Documentation

Contact Site Map
 

  

WinPak
Documentation

indent
































































ReadyPak                                                        1






INDENT(1L)        MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES



NAME

indent - changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting whitespace.

SYNOPSIS

indent [-bad] [-bap] [-bbb] [-bc] [-bl] [-bliN] [-br] [-cN] [-cdN] [-cdb] [-ce] [-ciN] [-cliN] [-cpN] [-cs] [-bs] [-dN] [-diN] [-fc1] [-fca] [-gnu] [-iN] [-ipN] [-kr] [-lN] [-lp] [-nbad] [-nbap] [-nbbb] [-nbc] [-ncdb] [-nce] [-ncs] [-nfc1] [-nfca] [-nip] [-nlp] [-npcs] [-npsl] [-nsc] [-nsob] [-nss] [-nv] [-orig] [-npro] [-pcs] [-psl] [-sc] [-sob] [-ss] [-st] [-T] [-tsN] [-v] [-version] [file]

DESCRIPTION

This man page is based on the Info file indent.info, pro- duced by Makeinfo-1.47 from the input file indent.texinfo. This is Edition 0.02, 5 May 1992, of The `indent' Manual, for Indent Version 1.3. Copyright (C) 1989, 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc. COPYING Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this per- mission notice are preserved on all copies. INTRODUCTION The `indent' program can be used to make code easier to read. It can also convert from one style of writing C to another. `indent' understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but it also attempts to cope with incomplete and mis- formed syntax. In version 1.2 and more recent versions, the GNU style of indenting is the default. INVOKING INDENT As of version 1.3, the format of the `indent' command is: indent [OPTIONS] [INPUT-FILES] indent [OPTIONS] [SINGLE-INPUT-FILE] [-o OUTPUT-FILE] This format is different from earlier versions and other versions of `indent'. In the first form, one or more input files are specified. `indent' makes a backup copy of each file, and the original file is replaced with its indented version. *Note Backup files::, for an explanation of how backups are made. ReadyPak 1 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES In the second form, only one input file is specified. In this case, or when the standard input is used, you may specify an output file after the `-o' option. To cause `indent' to write to standard output, use the `-st' option. This is only allowed when there is only one input file, or when the standard input is used. If no input files are named, the standard input is read for input. Also, if a filename named `-' is specified, then the standard input is read. As an example, each of the following commands will input the program `slithy_toves.c' and write its indented text to `slithy_toves.out': indent slithy_toves.c -o slithy_toves.out indent -st slithy_toves.c > slithy_toves.out cat slithy_toves.c | indent -o slithy_toves.out Most other options to `indent' control how programs are for- matted. As of version 1.2, `indent' also recognizes a long name for each option name. Long options are prefixed by either `--' or `+'. `+' is being superseded by `--' to maintain consistency with the POSIX standard. In most of this document, the traditional, short names are used for the sake of brevity. Here is another example: indent -br test/metabolism.c -l85 This will indent the program `test/metabolism.c' using the `-br' and `-l85' options, write the output back to `test/metabolism.c', and write the original contents of `test/metabolism.c' to a backup file in the directory `test'. Equivalent invocations using long option names for this example would be: indent --braces-on-if-line --line-length185 test/metabolism.c indent +braces-on-if-line +line-length185 test/metabolism.c If you find that you often use `indent' with the same options, you may put those options into a file called `.indent.pro'. `indent' will first look for `.indent.pro' in ReadyPak 2 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES the current directory and use that if found. Otherwise, `indent' will search your home directory for `.indent.pro' and use that file if it is found. This behaviour is dif- ferent from that of other versions of `indent', which load both files if they both exist. Command line switches are handled *after* processing `.indent.pro'. Options specified later override arguments specified earlier, with one exception: Explicitly specified options always override background options (*note Common styles::.). You can prevent `indent' from reading an `.indent.pro' file by specifying the `-npro' option. BACKUP FILES As of version 1.3, GNU `indent' makes GNU--style backup files, the same way GNU Emacs does. This means that either "simple" or "numbered" backup filenames may be made. Simple backup file names are generated by appending a suffix to the original file name. The default for the this suffix is the one-character string `~' (tilde). Thus, the backup file for `python.c' would be `python.c~'. Instead of the default, you may specify any string as a suf- fix by setting the environment variable `SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX' to your preferred suffix. Numbered backup versions of a file `momewraths' look like `momewraths.c.~23~', where 23 is the version of this partic- ular backup. When making a numbered backup of the file `src/momewrath.c', the backup file will be named `src/momewrath.c.~V~', where V is one greater than the highest version currently existing in the directory `src'. The type of backup file made is controlled by the value of the environment variable `VERSION_CONTROL'. If it is the string `simple', then only simple backups will be made. If its value is the string `numbered', then numbered backups will be made. If its value is `numbered-existing', then numbered backups will be made if there *already exist* num- bered backups for the file being indented; otherwise, a sim- ple backup is made. If `VERSION_CONTROL' is not set, then `indent' assumes the behaviour of `numbered-existing'. Other versions of `indent' use the suffix `.BAK' in naming backup files. This behaviour can be emulated by setting `SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX' to `.BAK'. Note also that other versions of `indent' make backups in the current directory, rather than in the directory of the source file as GNU `indent' now does. ReadyPak 3 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES COMMON STYLES There are several common styles of C code, including the GNU style, the Kernighan & Ritchie style, and the original Berkeley style. A style may be selected with a single "background" option, which specifies a set of values for all other options. However, explicitly specified options always override options implied by a background option. As of version 1.2, the default style of GNU `indent' is the GNU style. Thus, it is no longer neccessary to specify the option `-gnu' to obtain this format, although doing so will not cause an error. Option settings which correspond to the GNU style are: -nbad -bap -nbbb -nbc -bl -bli2 -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -nce -cli0 -cp1 -di0 -nfc1 -nfca -i2 -ip5 -lp -pcs -psl -nsc -nsob -nss -ts8 The GNU coding style is that preferred by the GNU project. It is the style that the GNU Emacs C mode encourages and which is used in the C portions of GNU Emacs. (People interested in writing programs for Project GNU should get a copy of `The GNU Coding Standards', which also covers seman- tic and portability issues such as memory usage, the size of integers, etc.) The Kernighan & Ritchie style is used throughout their well-known book `The C Programming Language'. It is enabled with the `-kr' option. The Kernighan & Ritchie style corresponds to the following set of options: -nbad -bap -nbbb -nbc -br -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4 -cli0 -cp33 -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -nfca -i4 -ip0 -l75 -lp -npcs -npsl -nsc -nsob -nss -ts8 Kernighan & Ritchie style does not put comments to the right of code in the same column at all times (nor does it use only one space to the right of the code), so for this style `indent' has arbitrarily chosen column 33. The style of the original Berkeley `indent' may be obtained by specifying `-orig' (or by specifyfying `--original', using the long option name). This style is equivalent to the following settings: -nbap -nbad -nbbb -bc -br -c33 -cd33 -cdb -ce -ci4 -cli0 -cp33 -d4 -di16 -fc1 -fca -i4 -ip4 -l75 -lp -npcs -psl -sc -nsob -nss -ts8 BLANK LINES Various programming styles use blank lines in different ReadyPak 4 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES places. `indent' has a number of options to insert or delete blank lines in specific places. The `-bad' option causes `indent' to force a blank line after every block of declarations. The `-nbad' option causes `indent' not to force such blank lines. The `-bap' option forces a blank line after every procedure body. The `-nbap' option forces no such blank line. The `-bbb' option forces a blank line before every block comment. A block comment is one which starts in column one when formatting of such comments is disabled, or one with `-' or `*' immediately following the `/*'. The `-nbbb' option does not force such blank lines. The `-sob' option causes `indent' to swallow optional blank lines (that is, any optional blank lines present in the input will be removed from the output). If the `-nsob' is specified, any blank lines present in the input file will be copied to the output file. The `-bad' option forces a blank line after every block of declarations. The `-nbad' option does not add any such blank lines. For example, given the input char *foo; char *bar; /* This separates blocks of declarations. */ int baz; `indent -bad' produces char *foo; char *bar; /* This separates blocks of declarations. */ int baz; and `indent -nbad' produces char *foo; char *bar; /* This separates blocks of declarations. */ int baz; The `-bap' option forces a blank line after every procedure body. For example, given the input ReadyPak 5 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES int foo () { puts("Hi"); } /* The procedure bar is even less interesting. */ char * bar () { puts("Hello"); } `indent -bap' produces int foo () { puts ("Hi"); } /* The procedure bar is even less interesting. */ char * bar () { puts ("Hello"); } and `indent -nbap' produces int foo () { puts ("Hi"); } /* The procedure bar is even less interesting. */ char * bar () { puts ("Hello"); } No blank line will be added after the procedure `foo'. COMMENTS Comments are no longer formatted by default as of version 1.2. This can be enabled with the `-fca' option. Doing so will cause newlines in the comment text to be ignored and the line will be filled up to the length of a line (which can be modified with `-l'). When formatting is enabled, blank lines indicate paragraph breaks. The `-fc1' option enables the formatting of comments which ReadyPak 6 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES begin in the first column. The `-nfc1' option disables the formatting of first column comments. When comment format- ting is disabled, overall comment indentation may still be adjusted. The indentation of comments which do not appear to the right of code is set by the `-d' option, which specifies the number of spaces to the left of the surrounding code that the comment appears. For example, `-d2' places comments two spaces to the left of code; `-d0' lines up comments with the code. The `-cdb' option controls whether the `/*' and `*/' are placed on blank lines. With `-cdb', comments look like this: /* * this is a comment */ With `-ncdb', comments look like this: /* this is a comment */ `-cdb' only affects block comments, not comments to the right of code. The default is `-ncdb'. Comments which appear on the same line as code are placed to the right. The column in which comments on code start is controlled by the `-c' option. The column in which comments to the right of declarations start is controlled by the `- cd' option. By default, they start in the same column as comments to the right of code, which is column 33. The column number for comments to the right of `#else' and `#endif' statements is controlled by the `-cp' option. If the code on a line extends past the comment column, the com- ment starts further to the right, and the right margin may be automatically extended in extreme cases. If the `-sc' option is specified, `*' is placed at the left edge of all comments. For example: /* This is a comment which extends from one line * onto the next line, thus causing us to consider * how it should continue. */ instead of /* This is a comment which extends from one line onto the next line, thus causing us to consider how it should continue. */ ReadyPak 7 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES STATEMENTS The `-br' or `-bl' option specifies how to format braces. The `-br' option formats braces like this: if (x > 0) { x--; } The `-bl' option formats them like this: if (x > 0) { x--; } If you use the `-bl' option, you may also want to specify the `-bli' option. This option specifies the number of spaces by which braces are indented. `-bli2', the default, gives the result shown above. `-bli0' results in the fol- lowing: if (x > 0) { x--; } If you are using the `-br' option, you probably want to also use the `-ce' option. This causes the `else' in an if- then-else construct to cuddle up to the immediately preced- ing `}'. For example, with `-br -ce' you get the following: if (x > 0) { x--; } else { fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?0); } With `-br -nce' that code would appear as if (x > 0) { x--; } else { fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?0); } The `-cli' option specifies the number of spaces that case labels should be indented to the right of the containing `switch' statement. If a semicolon is on the same line as a `for' or `while' statement, the `-ss' option will cause a space to be placed ReadyPak 8 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES before the semicolon. This emphasizes the semicolon, making it clear that the body of the `for' or `while' statement is an empty statement. `-nss' disables this feature. The `-pcs' option causes a space to be placed between the name of the procedure being called and the `(' (for example, `puts ("Hi");'. The `-npcs' option would give `puts("Hi");'). If the `-cs' option is specified, `indent' puts a space after a cast operator. The `-bs' option ensures that there is a space between the keyword `sizeof' and its argument. In some versions, this is known as the `Bill_Shannon' option. DECLARATIONS By default `indent' will line up identifiers, in the column specified by the `-di' option. For example, `-di16' makes things look like: int foo; char *bar; Using a small value (such as one or two) for the `-di' option can be used to cause the indentifiers to be placed in the first available position, for example int foo; char *bar; The value given to the `-di' option will still affect vari- ables which are put on separate lines from their types, for example `-di2' will lead to int foo; If the `-bc' option is specified, a newline is forced after each comma in a declaration. For example, int a, b, c; With the `-nbc' option this would look like int a, b, c; The `-psl' option causes the type of a procedure being defined to be placed on the line before the name of the pro- cedure. This style is required for the `etags' program to ReadyPak 9 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES work correctly, as well as some of the `c-mode' functions of Emacs. If you are not using the `-di1' option to place variables being declared immediately after their type, you need to use the `-T' option to tell `indent' the name of all the typenames in your program that are defined by `typedef'. `-T' can be specified more than once, and all names speci- fied are used. For example, if your program contains typedef unsigned long CODE_ADDR; typedef enum {red, blue, green} COLOR; you would use the options `-T CODE_ADDR -T COLOR'. INDENTATION One issue in the formatting of code is how far each line should be indented from the left margin. When the beginning of a statement such as `if' or `for' is encountered, the indentation level is increased by the value specified by the `-i' option. For example, use `-i8' to specify an eight character indentation for each level. When a statement is continued from a previous line, it is indented by a number of additional spaces specified by the `-ci' option. `-ci' defaults to 0. However, if the `-lp' option is specified, and a line has a left parenthesis which is not closed on that line, then continuation lines will be lined up to start at the character position just after the left parenthesis. This processing also applies to `[' and applies to `{' when it occurs in initialization lists. For example, a piece of continued code might look like this with `-nlp -ci3' in effect: p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3), third_procedure (p4, p5)); With `-lp' in effect the code looks somewhat clearer: p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3), third_procedure (p4, p5)); `indent' assumes that tabs are placed at regular intervals of both input and output character streams. These intervals are by default 8 columns wide, but (as of version 1.2) may be changed by the `-ts' option. Tabs are treated as the equivalent number of spaces. The indentation of type declarations in old-style function definitions is controlled by the `-ip' parameter. This is a numeric parameter specifying how many spaces to indent type declarations. For example, the default `-ip5' makes defini- tions look like this: ReadyPak 10 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES char * create_world (x, y, scale) int x; int y; float scale; { . . . } For compatibility with other versions of indent, the option `-nip' is provided, which is equivalent to `-ip0'. MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS To find out what version of `indent' you have, use the com- mand `indent -version'. This will report the version number of `indent', without doing any of the normal processing. The `-v' option can be used to turn on verbose mode. When in verbose mode, `indent' reports when it splits one line of input into two more more lines of output, and gives some size statistics at completion. COPYRIGHT The following copyright notice applies to the `indent' pro- gram. The copyright and copying permissions for this manual appear near the beginning of this document. Copyright (c) 1989, 1992 Free Software Foundation Copyright (c) 1985 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Copyright (c) 1980 The Regents of the University of California. Copyright (c) 1976 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and other materials related to such distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Illinois, Urbana, and Sun Microsystems, Inc. The name of either University or Sun Microsystems may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. OPTIONS Here is a list of all the options for `indent', alphabetized by short option. It is followed by a cross key alphabetized by long option. ReadyPak 11 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES `-bad' `--blank-lines-after-declarations' Force blank lines after the declarations. `-bap' `--blank-lines-after-procedures' Force blank lines after procedure bodies. `-bbb' `--blank-lines-after-block-comments' Force blank lines after block comments. `-bc' `--blank-lines-after-commas' Force newline after comma in declaration. `-bl' `--braces-after-if-line' Put braces on line after `if', etc. `-bliN' `--brace-indentN' Indent braces N spaces. `-br' `--braces-on-if-line' Put braces on line with `if', etc. `-cN' `--comment-indentationN' Put comments to the right of code in column N. `-cdN' `--declaration-comment-columnN' Put comments to the right of the declarations in column N. `-cdb' `--comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines' Put comment delimiters on blank lines. `-ce' `--cuddle-else' Cuddle else and preceeding `}'. `-ciN' `--continuation-indentationN' Continuation indent of N spaces. `-cliN' `--case-indentationN' Case label indent of N spaces. ReadyPak 12 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES `-cpN' `--else-endif-columnN' Put comments to the right of `#else' and `#endif' statements in column N. `-cs' `--space-after-cast' Put a space after a cast operator. `-bs' `--blank-before-sizeof' Put a space between `sizeof' and its argument. `-dN' `--line-comments-indentationN' Set indentation of comments not to the right of code to N spaces. `-diN' `--declaration-indentationN' Put variables in column N. `-fc1' `--format-first-column-comments' Format comments in the first column. `-fca' `--format-all-comments' Do not disable all formatting of comments. `-gnu' `--gnu-style' Use GNU coding style. This is the default. `-iN' `--indent-levelN' Set indentation level to N spaces. `-ipN' `--parameter-indentationN' Indent parameter types in old-style function definitions by N spaces. `-kr' `--k-and-r-style' Use Kernighan & Ritchie coding style. `-lN' `--line-lengthN' Set maximum line length to N. `-lp' `--continue-at-parentheses' ReadyPak 13 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES Line up continued lines at parentheses. `-nbad' `--no-blank-lines-after-declarations' Do not force blank lines after declarations. `-nbap' `--no-blank-lines-after-procedures' Do not force blank lines after procedure bodies. `-nbbb' `--no-blank-lines-after-block-comments' Do not force blank-lines after block comments. `-nbc' `--no-blank-lines-after-commas' Do not force newlines after commas in declarations. `-ncdb' `--no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines' Do not put comment delimiters on blank lines. `-nce' `--dont-cuddle-else' Do not cuddle `}' and `else'. `-ncs' `--no-space-after-casts' Do not put a space after cast operators. `-nfc1' `--dont-format-first-column-comments' Do not format comments in the first column as normal. `-nfca' `--dont-format-comments' Do not format any comments. `-nip' `--no-parameter-indentation' Zero width indentation for parameters. `-nlp' `--dont-line-up-parentheses' Do not line up parentheses. `-npcs' `--no-space-after-function-call-names' Do not put space after the function in function calls. `-npsl' `--dont-break-procedure-type' ReadyPak 14 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES Put the type of a procedure on the same line as its name. `-nsc' `--dont-star-comments' Do not put the `*' character at the left of comments. `-nsob' `--leave-optional-blank-lines' Do not swallow optional blank lines. `-nss' `--dont-space-special-semicolon' Do not force a space before the semicolon after certain statements. Disables `-ss'. `-nv' `--no-verbosity' `-orig' `--original' Use the original Berkeley coding style. `-npro' `--ignore-profile' Do not read `.indent.pro' files. `-pcs' `--space-after-procedure-calls' Insert a space between the name of the procedure being called and the `('. `-psl' `--procnames-start-lines' Put the type of a procedure on the line before its name. `-sc' `--start-left-side-of-comments' Put the `*' character at the left of comments. `-sob' `--swallow-optional-blank-lines' Swallow optional blank lines. `-ss' `--space-special-semicolon' On one-line `for' and `while' statments, force a blank before the semicolon. `-st' `--standard-output' Write to standard output. ReadyPak 15 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES `-T' Tell `indent' the name of typenames. `-tsN' `--tab-sizeN' Set tab size to N spaces. `-v' `--verbose' Enable verbose mode. `-version' Output the version number of `indent'. OPTIONS CROSS-REFERENCE Here is a list of options alphabetized by long option, to help you find the corresponding short option. --blank-lines-after-block-comments -bbb --blank-lines-after-commas -bc --blank-lines-after-declarations -bad --blank-lines-after-procedures -bap --braces-after-if-line -bl --brace-indent -bli --braces-on-if-line -br --case-indentation -cliN --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines -cdb --comment-indentation -cN --continuation-indentation -ciN --continue-at-parentheses -lp --cuddle-else -ce --declaration-comment-column -cdN --declaration-indentation -diN --dont-break-procedure-type -npsl --dont-cuddle-else -nce --dont-format-comments -nfca --dont-format-first-column-comments -nfc1 --dont-line-up-parentheses -nlp --dont-space-special-semicolon -nss --dont-star-comments -nsc --else-endif-column -cpN --format-all-comments -fca --format-first-column-comments -fc1 --gnu-style -gnu --ignore-profile -npro --indent-level -iN --k-and-r-style -kr --leave-optional-blank-lines -nsob --line-comments-indentation -dN --line-length -lN --no-blank-lines-after-block-comments -nbbb ReadyPak 16 INDENT(1L) MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES --no-blank-lines-after-commas -nbc --no-blank-lines-after-declarations -nbad --no-blank-lines-after-procedures -nbap --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines -ncdb --no-space-after-casts -ncs --no-parameter-indentation -nip --no-space-after-function-call-names -npcs --no-verbosity -nv --original -orig --parameter-indentation -ipN --procnames-start-lines -psl --space-after-cast -cs --space-after-procedure-calls -pcs --space-special-semicolon -ss --standard-output -st --start-left-side-of-comments -sc --swallow-optional-blank-lines -sob --tab-size -tsN --verbose -v RETURN VALUE Unknown FILES $HOME/.indent.pro holds default options for indent. AUTHOR The Free Software Foundation. HISTORY Derived from the UCB program "indent". ReadyPak 17 Prepared by Ready-to-Run Software, Inc.

 

Email addresses listed on this site may  NOT be used for unsolicited commercial email.

Ready-to-Run Software, Inc Privacy Statement

Portions (c)Copyright, 1996-2005 by Ready-to-Run Software, Inc
(All rights reserved.)
212 Cedar Cove
Lansing, NY 14882
Phone: 607 533 UNIX (8649)
Fax: 607 533 4002


To return to the Ready-to-Run Software WinPak Table of contents please presshere